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By dental occlusion we mean a repeatable, physiological and standard situation in which, when mandible and maxilla are clenched, the lower occlusal table interposes itself in the corresponding upper occlusal table. The situation is considered repeatable because chewing in carnivores consists of a repetitive closing-opening movement, performed by the chewing muscles, which pivot on the...
Management of wounds and the decision when to close a wound or how or continue to treat it as open represents a key question in small animal veterinary first opinion practice.
Vulvar and vaginal tumours account for 2.4-3% of neoplasms in dogs, while precise data are not available for cats. In the bitch, vaginal and vulvar tumours constitute about 40% and 34%, respectively, of genital neoplasms, which are the most frequent reproductive system tumours after mammary tumours.   SIGNALMENT AND HISTORY
The terms "vaginal prolapse and hyperplasia" refer to the protrusion of oedematous vaginal tissue through the rima vulvae; the terms "vaginal eversion" and "vaginal protrusion" are often used, but these are incorrect. Vaginal prolapse is a disorder that affects many species of domestic animals, including bovines, ovines and caprines; these species are generally affected by a complete prolapse, i....
The human eye is capable of recognizing hypoxia only when it is severe enough to cause cyanosis. Even under ideal conditions, trained observers cannot detect hypoxaemia until saturation is less than 80%. The difficulty that physicians have, in detecting hypoxaemia, was exemplified in a study of over 14,000 patients being evaluated at the UCLA Emergency Department. Patients were monitored with...
Dental extractions are true surgical procedures which the veterinary dentist often uses to resolve some disorders of the oral cavity. It must be understood that a dental extraction is an irreversible loss of an anatomical element (amputation), however this procedure is often necessary because other techniques aimed at preserving the teeth or parts of them would involve a series of post-operative...
Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of various malignancies in the dog. It is defined as an alkylating-like agent (rather than an alkylating one), because it does not contain alkyl groups and does not cause alkylation reactions. Cisplatin is considered one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of solid tumours in both humans and dogs.   CHEMICAL...

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