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Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the humeral head is a manifestation of osteochondrosis involving the scapulo-humeraljoint, and in particular, the caudal portion of the humeral head, in which an osteochondral flap separates and then detaches completely, exposing the underlying subchrondral bone. The condition affectsmedium, large and giant breeds of dogs during the growth period. OCD of the...
The main cause of feline acromegaly is adenoma of the somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland, which secretes excessive amounts of growth hormone (GH). Recent studies in humans have shown that in these adenomas there is an over-expression of cyclin B2 gene (CCNB2); however, the factor triggering this over-expression is still not clear. Studies in murine models have shown that the so-...
The tear film is a relatively instable, complex, trilaminar fluid structure that covers the cornea and conjunctiva externally. Given its importance and close anatomical relationship with the cornea and conjunctiva, it tends to be considered an additional corneal layer. It is formed of an external lipid layer, an intermediate aqueous or serous layer and an internal mucinous layer adherent to the...
X-ray examination of the oral cavity is an invaluable diagnostic technique for an in-depth investigation of the real condition of this area. The particular conformation of the mouth of carnivores necessitates the use of specific exposure techniques, each one appropriate for individual anatomical areas. Radiology of the oral cavity is useful on many occasions, the most frequent...
Opium is the product of condensation of the lactiferous juice coming from the capsules of Papaver somniferum (Figures 1a and 1b). Opiates are substances whose chemical analgesic properties have been known for a long time. The first undisputed reference to opium has been found in the writings of Theophrastus (Fig. 2) in the third century BC, in which the author named opium meconion (µὴκωνίὸν...
Gastric ulcers are erosions of the gastric mucosa which may involve also the deeper layers, such as the submucosa and muscularis, and may then be the cause of perforations of the gastric serosa with subsequent peritonitis.     AETIOLOGY
Parturition is defined as expulsion of the foetus(es) and foetal adnexae from the maternal uterus and occurs, in normal conditions, at the physiological completion of the pregnancy when the foetus(es) is(are) mature. The process of parturition is divided into three stages: the first stage is dilatation, characterized by progressive dilatation of the cervix and unapparent uterine contractions; the...

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The T3 suppression test is the safest and most reliable dynamic test for evaluating thyroid function in the cat


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